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Carbon Dioxide


Carbon Dioxide

So poorly understood, it's painful

Originally designed to measure atmospheric water vapor and temperature profiles for weather forecasting, AIRS data now allow scientists to map the global distribution of mid-tropospheric carbon dioxide and its seasonal and interannual variation. AIRS data have shown that carbon dioxide is not well mixed in the atmosphere and that its transport around the globe is greatly influenced by the mid-latitude jet streams. The AIRS data have also discovered a belt of mid-tropospheric air containing enhanced concentrations of carbon dioxide, appearing most strongly between 30 and 40 degrees south latitude during the southern hemisphere winter season. This belt had not previously been seen in any chemistry transport model and has only recently been confirmed via in situ aircraft measurements. The process by which this belt arises is not yet understood.


CO2 stopped rising. Nobody noticed this?

Co2 hasn't risen in years. Next time read it's still rising, check the date. If it's ten years old then it's almost certain all of the information on that site is out of date and not accurate.

NASA has already begun putting up disclaimers on some of its older data: "Disclaimer: This material is being kept online for historical purposes. Though accurate at the time of publication, it is no longer being updated. The page outdated information".

Outdated information like: "CO2 is rising".


measure
measure space

Originally designed to measure atmospheric water vapor and temperature profiles for weather forecasting, AIRS data now allow scientists to map the global distribution of mid-tropospheric carbon dioxide and its seasonal and interannual variation. AIRS data have shown that carbon dioxide is not well mixed in the atmosphere and that its transport around the globe is greatly influenced by the mid-latitude jet streams. The AIRS data have also discovered a belt of mid-tropospheric air containing enhanced concentrations of carbon dioxide, appearing most strongly between 30 and 40 degrees south latitude during the southern hemisphere winter season. This belt had not previously been seen in any chemistry transport model and has only recently been confirmed via in situ aircraft measurements. The process by which this belt arises is not yet understood.

Just like how some animals can regulate their internal body temperatures and osmotic pressures, new research has discovered some SPS corals can up-regulate their internal acid balance. The research offers hope that corals may better cope with ocean acidification as well as help explain why reef keepers are able to grow SPS in lower pH saltwater when using calcium reactors and CO2.

Research into Carbon Storage in Arctic Tundra Reveals Unexpected Insight into Ecosystem Resiliency

May 16, 2013 "We hypothesize that net soil carbon hasn't changed after 20 years because warming-accelerated decomposition has been offset by increased carbon inputs to the soil due to a combination of increased plant growth and changing soil conditions,"

For cold water corals, warming is beating acidification to drive a growth spurt.

We need more just to survive?

The authors make the point that most plants evolved in a 7000 ppm Co2 atmosphere and atmospheric Co2 is at an all time low right now, what few plants remain are those that can cope with these low levels. But as levels go up, food production increases *without doing anything else* to the point that increased CO2 is the key do feeding the planet.

The demonized chemical compound is a boon to plant life and has little correlation with global temperature.

The cessation of observed global warming for the past decade or so has shown how exaggerated NASA's and most other computer predictions of human-caused warming have been—and how little correlation warming has with concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. As many scientists have pointed out, variations in global temperature correlate much better with solar activity and with complicated cycles of the oceans and atmosphere. There isn't the slightest evidence that more carbon dioxide has caused more extreme weather.

2013: CO2 fertilisation has increased maximum foliage cover across the globe's warm, arid environments

Satellite observations reveal a greening of the globe over recent decades. The role in this greening of the ‘CO2 fertilization’ effect – the enhancement of photosynthesis due to rising CO2 levels – is yet to be established. The direct CO2 effect on vegetation should be most clearly expressed in warm, arid environments where water is the dominant limit to vegetation growth. Using gas exchange theory, we predict that the 14% increase in atmospheric CO2 (1982–2010) led to a 5 to 10% increase in green foliage cover in warm, arid environments. Satellite observations, analysed to remove the effect of variations in rainfall, show that cover across these environments has increased by 11%. Our results confirm that the anticipated CO2 fertilization effect is occurring alongside ongoing anthropogenic perturbations to the carbon cycle and that the fertilisation effect is now a significant land surface process.

Carbon dioxide emissions help tropical rainforests grow faster: Study shows trees absorb more greenhouse gas than expected

  • Nasa study shows tropical forests absorb 1.5 billion tonnes of CO2 a year
  • Rainforests absorb more than half of CO2 taken up by vegetation globally
  • Scientists previously believed tropical forests emitted carbon dioxide
  • Researchers claim their findings emphasise the need to protect rainforests from deforestation to help counteract human greenhouse gas emissions

  • https://www.sciencenews.org/article/fungi-pull-carbon-northern-forest-soils
    Fungi pull carbon into northern forest soils Organisms living on tree roots do lion’s share of sequestering carbon

    "But scientists have not understood where exactly trees put their carbon. The issue becomes important when researchers build computer simulations that track carbon cycling."

    "Settled science" is not "poorly understood".


    2013: Elevated carbon dioxide making arid regions greener

    WASHINGTON, DC—Scientists have long suspected that a flourishing of green foliage around the globe, observed since the early 1980s in satellite data, springs at least in part from the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere. Now, a study of arid regions around the globe finds that a carbon dioxide “fertilization effect” has, indeed, caused a gradual greening from 1982 to 2010.

    This study looks at the positive environmental effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a topic which has been well established in the scientific literature but which is far too often ignored in the current discussions about climate change policy. All life is carbon based and the primary source of this carbon is the CO2 in the global atmosphere. As recently as 18,000 years ago, at the height of the most recent major glaciation, CO2 dipped to its lowest level in recorded history at 180 ppm, low enough to stunt plant growth.

    This is only 30 ppm above a level that would result in the death of plants due to CO2 starvation. It is calculated that if the decline in CO2 levels were to continue at the same rate as it has over the past 140 million years, life on Earth would begin to die as soon as two million years from now and would slowly perish almost entirely as carbon continued to be lost to the deep ocean sediments. The combustion of fossil fuels for energy to power human civilization has reversed the downward trend in CO2 and promises to bring it back to levels that are likely to foster a considerable increase in the growth rate and biomass of plants, including food crops and trees. Human emissions of CO2 have restored a balance to the global carbon cycle, thereby ensuring the long-term continuation of life on Earth. (RJS - I take great exception with the last line, the case has not been made for this)


    Temperature forces CO2, not vice versa

    Temperature, among other factors, drives atmospheric CO2 much more than CO2 drives temperature. The rate of change dCO2/dt varies ~contemporaneously with temperature, which reflects the fact that the water cycle and the CO2 cycle are both driven primarily by changes in global temperatures (actually energy flux – Veizer et al).

    Evidence of variability of atmospheric CO2 concentration during the 20th century

    Since the 19th century, use of chemical methods has provided reliable atmospheric CO2 gas analyses results that have been obtained predominantly from the northern hemisphere. These direct chemical analyses results provide information on past atmospheric CO2 concentrations in addition to the modern direct atmospheric CO2 measurements since 1958 and the indirect reconstructions of past atmospheric CO2 from ice cores. Comprehensive literature indicates that the chemical methods have provided a systematic accuracy within ± 3 Vol% since 1857. Optimization through the 20th century resulted in numerous sampling round the world on land and sea resulting in systematic sampling and analysis of more than 90,000 CO2 values near ground, sea surface and up to the stratosphere when around 1960 the modern NDIR spectroscopic method was introduced. Comparison of measurements using old wet chemical and new physical methods in 1958 and 1967 on sea and land reveal a systematic analysis difference of about 10 ppm - new procedures compared to the old. Wet chemical analyses indicate that during the past 2 centuries there were three atmospheric CO2 maxima in the northern hemisphere. These maxima were as high as about 400 ppm in average over land and sea. The chemical analysis results indicate that atmospheric CO2 concentration – including its peak around 1942 – has about 80% correlation with the arctic sea surface temperature (SST) during the 20th century. Detailed analysis of CO2, weather and oceanographic data during the arctic warming since 1918 to 1939 indicate a strong warming of the Northern Arctic Ocean with a subsequent decrease of CO2 absorption in distinct absorption hotspots (e.g. near Spitsbergen) as a cause of the increased decadal atmospheric CO2 levels that is not seen in the ice core records.

    Man's contribution, negligable. Aug 2012

    "changes in atmospheric CO2 are not tracking changes in human emissions"

    Study at woods hole showed that as the earth heats up trees use more CO2.

    NASA: Higher CO2 levels responsible for 'greening' Earth

    By Brooks Hays | April 26, 2016 at 5:08 PM

    http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v6/n8/full/nclimate3004.html


    Contribution of natural sources of CO2 - Salby.

    Not

    On August 2, 2011 Professor Murry Salby, Chair of Climate Science at Macquarie University in Australia with visiting professorships at Paris, Stockholm, Jerusalem, and Kyoto, made a presentation entitled Global Emission of Carbon Dioxide: The Contribution from Natural Sources showing that changes in atmospheric CO2 levels appear to be primarily related to natural temperature changes, not human CO2 emissions.

    O2
    wot?

    "The maximum potential loss of O2 from fuel burning, when fossil fuel reserves (mostly coal) are exhausted is only a few percent of the atmospheric burden. Since even this loss will take many centuries to materialize, it's hard to see this as high on the list of possible environmental concerns. Fossil-fuel burning causes much larger relative changes in atmospheric CO2, which is much less abundant in air than O2."

    A few *percent" ? Percent? CO2 rises by ppm and is "much less abundant" but o2 can go down a few percent and it's not an issue. Pffft.


    Forests soak up third of fossil fuel emissions: study

    "If you were to stop deforestation tomorrow, the world's established and regrowing forests would remove half of fossil fuel emissions," he told AFP, describing the findings as both "incredible" and "unexpected".

    Study: Emission of smog ingredients from trees is increasing rapidly

    "They found that areas where farmland has been abandoned during the last century have early generations of trees that produce higher levels of VOCs than older growth forests. In the South, pine plantations used for their fast-growing supplies of timber have proven to be havens for sweetgum trees, which are major producers of VOCs. Indeed, virtually every tree that grows fast -- a desirable quality for forestry production -- is a heavy emitter of VOCs."

    Small 'hot spot' responsible for producing the largest concentration of the greenhouse gas methane seen over the United States


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