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1943: US Army Conducts Secret Mustard Gas Trials on Nonwhite Soldiers
1943: US Army Conducts Secret Mustard Gas Trials on Nonwhite Soldiers

  1. "Secret World War II Chemical Experiments Tested Troops By Race"
    1. Army Col. Steve Warren, director of press operations at the Pentagon, acknowledged NPR's findings and was quick to put distance between today's military and the World War II experiments.
    2. http://www.npr.org/2015/06/22/415194765/u-s-troops-tested-by-race-in-secret-world-war-ii-chemical-experiments
    3. June 22, 20154:59 AM ET
    4. CAITLIN DICKERSON


  2. "The Breakthrough: Used as ‘Guinea Pigs’ by the U.S. Military, Then Discarded"
    1. During World War II, the government subjected thousands of troops to mustard gas tests — and kept it a secret. More than 60 years later, an NPR reporter and researcher helped the men get justice.
    2. Jessica Huseman Nov. 17, 2017
    3. http://www.propublica.org/podcast/the-breakthrough-used-as-guinea-pigs-by-the-u-s-military-then-discarded


  3. Mustard gas and American race-based human experimentation in World War II
    1. Smith, S. L. (2008). The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 36(3), 517–521. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720x.2008.299.x
    2. "This essay examines the risks of racialized science as revealed in the American mustard gas experiments of World War II. In a climate of contested beliefs over the existence and meanings of racial differences, medical researchers examined the bodies of Japanese American, African American, and Puerto Rican soldiers for evidence of how they differed from whites."
    3. "During World War II, scientists funded by the United States government conducted mustard gas experiments on 60,000 American soldiers as part of military preparation for potential chemical warfare. One aspect of the chemical warfare research program on mustard gas involved race-based human experimentation. In at least nine research projects conducted during the 1940s"
    4. In 1943 the U.S. began mustard gas testing on human subjects. At least 2,500 men were tested in gas chambers, 1,000 men in field tests, and the rest of the 60,000 with patch tests and drop tests. Id. (Freeman); see also Pechura and Rall, eds., supra note 1, at 10
    5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18840244

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