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The measles vaccine is neither safe nor effective.
The measles vaccine is neither safe nor effective.

https://jgv.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-72-1-83

"Several lineages of measles virus can be found to co-circulate at a given time."

Measles virus (MV) is a monotypic virus which has been considered extraordinarily stable in terms of its serology and immune responses to it. However, analysis of the ability of different strains of the virus to bind monoclonal antibodies has revealed a low level of variability in the major antigens (Sheshberadaran et al., 1983) and, more recently, strain variations have been studied directly by analysis of the nucleotide sequences of MV strains (data compiled in Cattaneo et al., 1989).


Vaccine derived measles virus causes fatal meningitis from an MMR shot.

Measles Inclusion-Body Encephalitis Caused by the Vaccine Strain of Measles Virus

We report a case of measles inclusion-body encephalitis (MIBE) occurring in an apparently healthy 21-month-old boy 8.5 months after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. He had no prior evidence of immune deficiency and no history of measles exposure or clinical disease. During hospitalization, a primary immunodeficiency characterized by a profoundly depressed CD8 cell count and dysgammaglobulinemia was demonstrated. A brain biopsy revealed histopathologic features consistent with MIBE, and measles antigens were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Electron microscopy revealed inclusions characteristic of paramyxovirus nucleocapsids within neurons, oligodendroglia, and astrocytes. The presence of measles virus in the brain tissue was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequence in the nucleoprotein and fusion gene regions was identical to that of the Moraten and Schwarz vaccine strains; the fusion gene differed from known genotype A wild-type viruses.


The H Gene of Rodent Brain-Adapted Measles Virus Confers Neurovirulence to the Edmonston Vaccine Strain

Molecular determinants of neuropathogenesis have been shown to be present in the hemagglutinin (H) protein of measles virus (MV). An H gene insertion vector has been generated from the Edmonston B vaccine full-length infectious clone of MV. Using this vector, it is possible to insert complete H open reading frames into the parental (Edtag) background. The H gene from a rodent brain-adapted MV strain (CAM/RB) was inserted into this vector, and a recombinant virus (EdtagCAMH) was rescued by using a modified vaccinia virus which expresses T7 RNA polymerase (MVA-T7). The recombinant virus grew at an equivalent rate and to similar titers as the CAM/RB and Edtag parental viruses. Neurovirulence was assayed in a mouse model for MV encephalitis. Viruses were injected intracerebrally into the right cortex of C57/BL/6 suckling mice. After infection mice inoculated with the CAM/RB strain developed hind limb paralysis and ataxia. Clinical symptoms were never observed with an equivalent dose of Edtag virus or in sham infections. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect viral antigen in formalin-fixed brain sections. Measles antigen was observed in neurons and neuronal processes of the hippocampus, frontal, temporal, and olfactory cortices and neostriatum on both sides of symmetrical structures. Viral antigen was not detected in mice infected with Edtag virus. Mice infected with the recombinant virus, EdtagCAMH, became clinically ill, and virus was detected by IHC in regions of the brain similar to those in which it was detected in animals infected with CAM/RB. The EdtagCAMH infection had, however, progressed much less than the CAM/RB virus at 4 days postinfection. It therefore appears that additional determinants are encoded in other regions of the MV genome which are required for full neurovirulence equivalent to CAM/RB. Nevertheless, replacement of the H gene alone is sufficient to cause neuropathology.


Altered Virulence of Vaccine Strains of Measles Virus after Prolonged Replication in Human Tissue

"...a virus isolated from an immunodeficient child with progressive vaccine-induced disease (Hu2)."

"...pMor-1, Hu2, and Ed-wt displayed virulent phenotypes in thymic implants, with high levels of virus being detected by 3 days after infection (105.2, 102.8, and 103.4, respectively) and maximal levels being detected between 7 and 14 days after infection. In contrast, Moraten required over 14 days to grow to detectable levels. pMor-1 produced the highest levels of virus throughout infection, suggesting thymic adaptation of this strain. Similar to other virulent strains, Ed-wt, Hu2, and pMor-1 caused a decrease in the number of viable thymocytes as assessed by trypan blue exclusion and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis."

"However, fatal infections have been documented in immunodeficient children vaccinated with these strains..."

"Hu2, an MV strain isolated from a child with congenital immunodeficiency who died of disseminated measles after immunization with the Schwarz vaccine (12), has enhanced virulence in thy/liv implants. Both strains showed increased virulence in the thy/liv model"


"Serum collected 13 days after MMR was measles PCR positive"

MMR vaccine in HIV-infected children — potential hazards?

"The serum collected 13 days after MMR was measles PCR positive by both a validated in-house method [3] and at a commercial laboratory (Micropathology Ltd.). Results of tests for evidence of infection by other rash causing viruses were negative: PCR for enterovirus RNA, HHV-6 DNA, adenovirus DNA, mumps RNA and rubella RNA (Micropathology Ltd.) and dot blot and IgM assays for parvovirus B19 (PHLS Colindale) were all negative. The sequence of nucleic acids amplified by PCR was identical to published sequences (GenBank) of measles vaccine strains derived from the Enders isolate of Edmonston virus [4]. These are the strains currently used in the UK in measles vaccines including the MMR II™ vaccine (Aventis-Pasteur) received by the patient described in this report"

"The statement by the American Academy of Paediatrics [10] does not recommend giving live attenuated measles vaccine to severely immunosuppressed HIVinfected patients as defined in Table 2, because they do not respond well to measles vaccine and there is some risk of serious complications."


"The overall risk of aseptic meningitis following the MMR campaign was increased 12.2-fold"

We estimated a risk of 2.9 cases per 10 000 doses of L-Z administered, equivalent to 1 case per 3390 doses administered. The overall risk of aseptic meningitis following the campaign was increased 12.2-fold (95% CI: 6.0–24.7) compared with the same period in 1995–1996. Following the mass campaign, the incidence of mumps declined 93% during 1998–2000


Global measles elimination

"Measles virus (MV) is highly infectious, requiring a high level of population immunity to interrupt transmission, and might be more difficult to eliminate in regions of high population density and high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection."

"The ideal measles vaccine would be inexpensive, safe, heat-stable, immunogenic in neonates or very young infants, administered as a single dose without needle or syringe, and would not prime individuals for atypical measles or be associated with prolonged immunosuppression. Several vaccine candidates with some of these characteristics are undergoing development."


Risk 
analysis
 for
 measles
 reintroduction 
post 
global
 certification
 of
 eradication (W.H.O.)

"Mild
or
a symptomatic measles
 infections
 are
 probably
 very
 common"


13 out of the 16 immunized measles cases had measles from the vaccine strain

To identify wild measles virus and vaccine virus by detection nucleic acid of clinical samples from measles patients with immunization history circulating in Beijing through multiplex real-time fluorescent PCR technology.


How to tell wild vs. lab strain measles infections.

"Rashes are expected to occur after immunization; nucleic acid testing can be used when it is difficult to differentiate between wild and attenuated strains."

Translation: vaccines spread disease. Live virus vaccines reproduce in the gut and are excreted. This can infect others. Consider what an irony it is when a kid, vaccinated for measles, gets measles and the virus turns out to be from a vaccine in the first place. Not only did the shot not work preventing the illness, but it actuallt caused more disease: a classic case of the cure being worse than the disease.

"First, do no harm." - Hippocrates


Case of vaccine-associated measles five weeks post-immunisation, British Columbia, Canada, October 2013

We describe a case of vaccine-associated measles in a two-year-old patient from British Columbia, Canada, in October 2013, who received her first dose of measles-containing vaccine 37 days prior to onset of prodromal symptoms. Identification of this delayed vaccine-associated case occurred in the context of an outbreak investigation of a measles cluster.


Fatal varicella due to the vaccine-strain varicella-zoster virus

We describe a death in a 15-mo-old girl who developed a varicella-like rash 20 d after varicella vaccination that lasted for 2 mo despite acyclovir treatment. The rash was confirmed to be due to vaccine-strain varicella-zoster virus (VZV). This is the first case of fatal varicella due to vaccine-strain VZV reported from the United States. The patient developed severe respiratory complications that worsened with each new crop of varicella lesions; vaccine-strain VZV was detected in the bronchial lavage specimen. Sepsis and multi-organ failure led to death.


Outbreak of Measles Among Persons With Prior Evidence of Immunity, New York City, 2011

Measles was eliminated in the United States through high vaccination coverage and a public health system able to rapidly respond to measles. Measles may occur among vaccinated individuals, but secondary transmission from such individuals has not yet been documented.

This report documents measles transmission from an individual with verified secondary vaccine failure.

This was the famous "Measles Mary" case covered in the media.


measles virus (MeV) was interrupted in the Americas in 2002. Wild-type viruses of genotype A are no longer circulating.

Rapid Identification of Measles Virus Vaccine Genotype by Real-Time PCR
DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01879-16

o Endemic transmission of measles virus (MeV) was interrupted in the Americas in 2002
o approximately 5% of recipients of measles virus-containing vaccine experience rash and fever which may be indistinguishable from measles
o During the measles outbreak in California in 2015, a large number of suspected cases occurred in recent vaccinees
o Of the 194 measles virus sequences obtained in the United States in 2015, 73 were identified as vaccine sequences (R. J. McNall, unpublished data). In contrast, only 11 of 542 cases genotyped in the National Reference Center for Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in Germany were associated with the vaccine virus.

Genotyping is used to confirm the origin of an outbreak and to exclude endemic circulation, but it is also the only way to distinguish vaccine strains from wild-type viruses.

The WHO currently recognizes 24 genotypes of measles virus, and all of the vaccine strains are in a single genotype, genotype A. Wild-type viruses of genotype A are no longer circulating (11).


Outbreak of over 12000 cases of measles in Ukraine is caused by recent vaccination campaign

In recent years there has been a shortage of measles vaccines in Ukraine. Vaccination rates had dropped to 31% in 2016 and were the lowest in Europe. And yet there were hardly any cases of measles. In 2017 sufficient vaccines became available for a ‘catch-up campaign’ and 90% of the children in Ukraine received the MMR. Since then there has been an explosion of cases of measles.


Industry explains how the vaccine causes consumers to spread the live virus.

"We demonstrated excretion of the Schwarz measles vaccine virus in a child with a vaccine-associated febrile rash illness in urine and in pharyngeal excretions."

"Competing interests:
Maja Santak is an employee of the Institute of Immunology, Zagreb, the national vaccine producer."


Vaccine instability in the cold chain: Mechanisms, analysis and formulation strategies

These include live, attenuated (measles, polio) and inactivated (influenza, polio) viral vaccines as well as recombinant protein (hepatitis B) vaccines.


Measles Outbreak Traced to Fully Vaccinated Patient for First Time

By Nsikan AkpanApr. 11, 2014 , 12:00 PM

"That’s why a fully vaccinated 22-year-old theater employee in New York City who developed the measles in 2011 was released without hospitalization or quarantine. But like Typhoid Mary, this patient turned out to be unwittingly contagious. Ultimately, she transmitted the measles to four other people, according to a recent report in Clinical Infectious Diseases that tracked symptoms in the 88 people with whom “Measles Mary” interacted while she was sick. Surprisingly, two of the secondary patients had been fully vaccinated. And although the other two had no record of receiving the vaccine, they both showed signs of previous measles exposure that should have conferred immunity."





1991 Taylor: "Several lineages of measles virus can be found to co-circulate at a given time."
https://jgv.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-72-1-83


1999 Bitnun: Vaccine derived measles virus causes fatal meningitis from an MMR shot.
https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/29/4/855/451603


1999 Duprex: The H Gene of Rodent Brain-Adapted Measles Virus Confers Neurovirulence to the Edmonston Vaccine Strain
http://jvi.asm.org/content/73/8/6916/article-info


1999 Valsamakis: Altered Virulence of Vaccine Strains of Measles Virus after Prolonged Replication in Human Tissue
https://jvi.asm.org/content/73/10/8791


2001 Cohen: "Serum collected 13 days after MMR was measles PCR positive"
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X01001220


2002 Silveira: "The overall risk of aseptic meningitis following the MMR campaign was increased 12.2-fold"
https://academic.oup.com/ije/article/31/5/978/745807


2006 Moss: Global measles elimination
https://www.nature.com/articles/nrmicro1550


2010 Sanders: Risk 
analysis
 for
 measles
 reintroduction 
post 
global
 certification
 of
 eradication (W.H.O.)
https://www.who.int/immunization/sage/7._Measles_post_eradication_risk_analysis.pdf


2012 Chen: 13 out of the 16 immunized measles cases had measles from the vaccine strain
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23363872/


2012 Nestibo: How to tell wild vs. lab strain measles infections.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23543773


2013 Murti: Case of vaccine-associated measles five weeks post-immunisation, British Columbia, Canada, October 2013
https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2013.18.49.20649


2014 Leung: Fatal varicella due to the vaccine-strain varicella-zoster virus
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4181020/


2014 Rosen: Outbreak of Measles Among Persons With Prior Evidence of Immunity, New York City, 2011
https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/58/9/1205/2895266


2017 Roy: measles virus (MeV) was interrupted in the Americas in 2002. Wild-type viruses of genotype A are no longer circulating.
http://jcm.asm.org/content/55/3/735/article-info


2018 Gabrielle: Outbreak of over 12000 cases of measles in Ukraine is caused by recent vaccination campaign
https://stichtingvaccinvrij.nl/outbreak-of-over-12000-cases-of-measles-in-ukraine-is-caused-by-recent-vaccination-campaign/


2019 Kaic: Industry explains how the vaccine causes consumers to spread the live virus.
https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/ese.15.35.19652-en


2014 Kumru: Vaccine instability in the cold chain: Mechanisms, analysis and formulation strategies
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1045105614000487


Measles Mary: Measles Outbreak Traced to Fully Vaccinated Patient for First Time
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/04/measles-outbreak-traced-fully-vaccinated-patient-first-time